Electromagnetic (TEM) surveying methods make us of the response of the ground to the propagation of electromagnetic field.

This response vary according to the conductivity of the ground (in S/m). 

Primary TEM fields are generated using a alternating current in a loop wire (coil) or a natural TEM source. 

The reponse of the ground is the generation of a secondary TEM field. 

The resultant field is detected by the alternating currents that thery induce in a receiver coil.


  • Exploration of metalliferous mineral deposits
  • Exploration for fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)
  • Engineering / construction site invertigation
  • Geology
  • Archaeology